Comparing 2-Stroke vs 4-Stroke Outboard Performance
Both 2-stroke and 4-stroke outboard motors are made to power your boat through the water, but they go about it in slightly different ways.
How 2-stroke and 4-stroke outboards power a boat plays a big role in their performance, including acceleration, top speed, reliability, durability, weight and fuel economy. To help you decide which option is best for your boat, here’s how 2-stroke and 4-stroke outboards work and perform.
What is Stroke?
An engine’s stroke is the movement of the piston from the very top of the cylinder (Top Dead Center) to the very bottom of the cylinder (Bottom Dead Center).
Each time the piston moves, it rotates the engine’s crankshaft and generates power used by the outboard’s propeller. To rotate the crankshaft a full 360 degrees, the piston must complete two strokes. The first stroke moves the piston down from TDC to BDC and the second stroke moves the piston up from BDC back to TDC again.
How 2-Stroke and 4-Stroke Engines Work
All internal combustion engines undergo four phases to complete a full power cycle.
- Intake - The fuel/air mixture enters the cylinder
- Compression - The fuel/air mixture is compressed within the cylinder
- Combustion/Power - The fuel/air mixture is ignited and burns within the cylinder
- Exhaust - The leftover combustion gasses exit the cylinder
The phases in layman’s terms are referred to as “suck, squeeze, bang, blow”. Although both 2-stroke and 4-stroke motors undergo all four phases of combustion to complete each full power cycle, the 2-stroke engine only needs two strokes and of course the 4-stroke needs four.
Effect on Performance: By only requiring two strokes to generate one revolution of crankshaft power, theoretically a 2-stroke outboard would generate twice as much power as a 4-stroke engine. However, 2-stroke motors aren’t twice as powerful as 4-strokes but are renowned for their impressive acceleration and top-end speed.
4-Stroke Engine Power Cycle
In a 4-stroke engine, the phases are controlled by four strokes of the piston, one for each individual phase.
- Intake stroke - The piston moves down, providing space within the cylinder for the fuel/air mixture as an intake valve opens and allows the fuel/air mixture to enter the cylinder.
- Compression stroke - The piston moves up as the intake valve closes, compressing the fuel/air mixture so it will ignite and combust more efficiently.
- Combustion/power stroke - The piston is forced down by the explosive combustion of the fuel/air mixture. It’s this forced movement of the piston that turns the crankshaft and generates power from the engine.
- Exhaust stroke - The piston moves up again as an exhaust valve opens, expelling the waste gasses from the cylinder.
Effect on Performance: The inclusion of valves and a valve train adds weight to a 4-stroke outboard, which hinders acceleration and speed. More moving parts means more potential failures if the engine isn’t properly serviced. However, the engine doesn’t have to run at such high RPM to generate power, so the parts are more likely to last longer.
2-Stroke Engine Power Cycle
In a 2-stroke engine, the four phases are controlled by just two strokes of the piston.
The precise method in which the four phases are completed by the two strokes varies slightly by design. However, all 2-stroke engines operate on the following principle:
Upstroke - The piston moves up, compressing the fuel/air mixture within the cylinder while an inlet port allows a fresh charge of fuel/air mixture to be sucked into the crankcase beneath the piston as it rises.
Downstroke - The piston is forced down by the explosive combustion of the fuel/air mixture. As it moves down, it uncovers an exhaust port and a transfer port, allowing the waste gasses to flow out and the fresh fuel/air charge to flow into the cylinder from the crankcase below.
Effect on Performance: Not requiring a valve train means less moving parts and weight, thus better acceleration and speed. However, 2-stroke outboards typically have to run at high RPMs to generate power, which stresses the engine and reduces durability. Also, because the transfer and exhaust ports are open at the same time, some fuel escapes unburned, which increases fuel consumption.
2-Stroke vs 4-Stroke Engine Lubrication
The 4-stroke motor lubrication system utilizes a sealed crankcase in which all the moving parts are continuously bathed in oil.
The 2-stroke motor lubrication system relies on adding oil to the fuel/air mixture. Because the crankcase is part of the intake system, it can’t be flooded with engine oil. To ensure the moving parts within the crankcase and the cylinder are adequately lubricated, oil is mixed with the fuel.
As the fuel mixes with the intake air and enters the crankcase, it carries the oil with it. Once inside the engine, the microscopic drops of oil suspended in the fuel/air mixture come into contact with and cling to all the mechanical parts
Effect on Performance: The 4-stroke lubrication system needs regular maintenance (oil and filter changes), whereas the 2-stroke system is virtually maintenance-free. However, a 2-stroke outboard will burn through a lot more oil in a season than a 4-stroke, so the running costs are higher.
2-Stroke Outboard vs. 4-Stroke Outboard Performance Final Word
Based solely on the mechanical design and workings, the 2-stroke has the edge when it comes to acceleration and top speed, while the 4-stroke is better on reliability and durability.
Both engine types have their pros and cons. However, modern engineering and technology have closed the gaps between 2-stroke and 4-stroke outboards, making them more evenly matched over time.