Understanding Yamaha Outboard Fuel Systems
A clean fuel system can make the difference between an outboard happily running at wide-open throttle all day or refusing to fire up at all.
Modern outboard fuel systems have become more complex with computerized engine mapping, direct fuel injection, etc., leading to the fuel system’s filtration methods needing to be equally hi-tech.
A Yamaha outboard can have as many as five different fuel filters. The exact number depends on the outboard’s age and model. However, understanding what each fuel filter does, where it’s located and when to inspect or replace it is important to keeping your outboard healthy.
What Fuel Filters Do
The purpose of a fuel filter is to trap any impurities in the fuel, and prevent them from entering components further down the line and blocking them.
Fuel filters also prevent impurities from entering the engine itself, where they would impair the combustion process and cause physical damage to the pistons and cylinders.
Impurities in fuel can be minute dust particles that found their way into the boat’s fuel tank while it was filled.
They can also be larger particles of dirt that entered the fuel somewhere along the process of shipping, unloading and storing that accounts for the fuel getting from the refinery to the pump you bought it from. Deposits from old evaporated fuel within the fuel system can also get dislodged and turn into floating impurities.
Water is another impurity. The ethanol in boat fuel is hygroscopic and hydrophilic, which means it attracts water molecules (hygroscopic) and absorbs them (hydrophilic). Even tiny amounts of water in the fuel can damage components in the fuel system and affect the fuel’s combustion.
Reasons for Multiple Fuel Filters
Impurities in fuel come in various shapes and sizes, creating the need for different-sized filters to trap them. A single filter would get clogged by all the impurities it caught. Having multiple filters with each one trapping smaller impurities allows through-flow and the fuel system to continue delivering fuel to the motor. It’s also necessary to have an additional filter capable of trapping water and preventing it from passing through the fuel system.
Yamaha Outboard Fuel Filters
Not all Yamaha outboards have the same individual fuel filters, so check your outboard’s owner/service manual to find out which filters your motor carries.
10-Micron Fuel/Water Separator Filter
The fuel/water separator filter is a spin-on filter that traps water within a retention chamber. It also traps impurities as small as 10 microns (about 5% the width of a human hair).
- Located in the fuel line leading from the fuel tank to the powerhead.
- Yamaha recommends the fuel/water separator filter be replaced every 50 hours.
PRO TIP: Not all outboards have a fuel/water separator filter, but they’re cheap and easy to install. It’s highly recommended you fit one to protect your outboard.
Primary On-Engine Filter
The primary on-engine filter is housed in a translucent plastic cup, trapping water and other impurities.
If you can see water in the cup, remove it and drain it, and replace the filter element.
- Located on one of the vertical sides of the powerhead.
- Yamaha recommends the primary on-engine filter be replaced every 100 hours.
The in-line filter is a secondary filter that traps impurities but not water. In-line filters are usually transparent, allowing you to see if the filter is clogged.
- Located in the fuel line either before or after the vapor separator tank.
- Yamaha recommends the in-line filter be replaced every 100 hours.
The vapor separator tank (VST) filter is a very fine filter that traps impurities before the fuel is pressurized and sent into the fuel injection rails.
The VST filter is a bottleneck where buildup from untreated fuel can form and create blockages. Because the VST filter is hard to access and costly to replace, always use fuel stabilizer when refueling your boat.
- Located inside the vapor separator tank.
- Yamaha recommends the filter be replaced every 100 hours.
Fuel Injector Screen
Each fuel injector has a tiny screen filter built in as a last line of defense against impurities to the engine.
Because the fuel injectors are hard to access and expensive to clean or replace, make sure you change the other fuel filters regularly to prevent contaminants from ever reaching the injectors.
- Located within the fuel injector.
- Yamaha recommends the fuel injectors be cleaned or replaced every 300 hours.